Crohn’s disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. Signs and symptoms often include abdominal pain, diarrhoea (which may be bloody if inflammation is severe), fever, and weight loss. Other complications may occur outside the gastrointestinal tract and include anaemia, skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, and feeling tired. The skin rashes may be due to infections as well as pyoderma gangrenous or erythema nodosum. Bowel obstruction also commonly occurs and those with the disease are at greater risk of bowel cancer.
Crohn’s disease is caused by a combination of environmental, immune and bacterial factors in genetically susceptible individuals. It results in a chronic inflammatory disorder, in which the body’s immune system attacks the gastrointestinal tract possibly directed at microbial antigens. While Crohn’s is an immune related disease, it does not appear to be an autoimmune disease (in that the immune system is not being triggered by the body itself). The exact underlying immune problem is not clear; however, it may be an immunodeficiency state. About half of the overall risk is related to genetics with more than 70 genes found to be involved. Tobacco smokers are two times more likely to develop Crohn’s disease than non-smokers. It also often begins after gastroenteritis. Diagnosis is based on a number of findings including biopsy and appearance of the bowel wall, medical imaging and description of the disease. Other conditions that can present similarly include irritable bowel syndrome and Bechet’s disease.
Medical Marijuana Efficacy
The cannabinoids in marijuana interact with CB receptors in the colon, intestines, brain and nervous system in several ways that help Crohn’s patients:
Epithelial Permeability – THC has a protective effect; cannabinoids can enhance wound closure in the colon.
Leukocyte recruitment – Leukocytes (white blood cells) are involved in the defence of an organism and protect it from disease by promoting or inhibiting inflammatory responses.
Brain – Cannabinoid receptors in the brain provide reduced pain sensation, relief of nausea and feelings of “unpleasantness.”
Enteric Nervous System – Cannabinoid receptors control secretion and motility (the over-activity of the intestinal tract). THC has been found to relieve motility and inhibit secretion associated with inflammation of the gut providing relief from diarrhoea.
Related Clinical Information to Crohn’s disease and Medical Cannabis